As a political, economical, cultural and social phenomenon, populism has been one of the very transcendental for the growth of Western societies in the next half of the 20th century. It’s closely connected to a different phenomenon, emerged from the 19th century, but that had its serious consequences with both world wars: nationalism. Both have discovered spokespersons at a European area that’s approaching complicated parliamentary elections throughout what’s perceived as the decrease of its multilateral system.
Prior to talking to this specific European instance, it’s vital to give short definitions of both theories.
The three fundamental elements :
- A political elite that says it wants to end the statu quo;
- A mass of followers, who feel part of a kind of revolution;
- An emotional state or an ideology that generates a collective enthusiasm and favors (at least in appearance) the communication between leaders and followers.
We can understand this was increased by Ernest Gellner, who’s also said that the breach of the principle creates a “civic sense” of anger. It’s this feeling, instead of a thoughtful evaluation, that contributes to mobilization to recoup the missing unity (whether actual or imagined).
Two United Theories
In today’s circumstance, populism and nationalism are all united. Traditionally, the leftist populism, though it creates appeals to the homeland, doesn’t reveal such a strong connection with the thoughts of challenging nationalism. On the flip side, the intense right-wing celebrations in Europe, (if they recognize themselves as such or not), reveal indications of this grievance of this broken nationalist principle plus they do it continuously.
Some the clearest manifestation of the place has been the rejection of this International Pact on Migration of 2018. Secondly, a Euroscepticism which denounces the reduction of national sovereignty within the alleged abuses of Brussels.
Third, and possibly the most significant element, is that the definition of this country rather than an “additional”, an enemy. This enemy, in the present circumstance, is represented in 2 ways: the outside one, Islam, along with the inner one, that the anti-patriotic forces that want to break the federal motto.
To defend ideals which are considered endangered, populist politicians create a continuous appeal to the country, which substratum that seemingly would have stayed in a state of permanent deception from the conventional political parties, or even entirely from politics.
As has occurred in Latin America in the previous five decades, Europe might be facing its shift of political practice, together with the powerful resurgence of civic political suggestions using a clear populist part from Spain to Hungary, moving off in the social democratic heritage.
Putting a parallel to what occurred in the American continent (traditionally with left-wing populisms), modern European populism can’t be explained just as the effect of the dependence relationship of these peripheral areas toward the fundamental ones.
Necessary to take into account the integration issues suffered by the many efficiently neglected areas within Europe. Over dependency issues, we can talk of this marginalization of particular areas, either from an economical, in addition to a cultural and political perspective.
Going back into the Latin American instance, we could link the present scenario to the a Gino Germani called 1965, when he introduced the contradictions in representative democracies in Latin America, where coexisted several regions, social groups and ethnic characteristics known as “backward” and other so called “innovative”.
Integration issues Mentioned, it is associated with the integration issues inside the EU, but not just in connection with economic frequencies.
At the upcoming European elections there’ll be agents of groups and parties that seek the marketing of shared policies, and many others that wish to come back to the liberty of their nation-state contrary to the governmental community comprised from the EU.
The problem doesn’t lie at the occurrence of different political possibilities for the evolution of every country and the area, but in the simple fact that a number of them are predicated on demonizing the political strategy, and in addition, the minorities and vulnerable groups which find refuge within their legal system and democratic ideals. The joys and permanence of disagreements which had already attained consequences, is particularly worrisome.